Tuesday, August 14, 2012

9 Mengapa Suhu Udara di Dataran Tinggi Lebih Dingin daripada di Dataran Rendah?


Pernahkah Anda bepergian ke dataran tinggi Dieng, Gayo, atau dataran tinggi lainnya? Jika pernah, tentu Anda tahu bahwa suhu udara di dataran tinggi lebih dingin daripada suhu udara di dataran rendah. Mengapa hal ini bisa terjadi? Bukankah posisi dataran tinggi lebih dekat ke arah matahari?

Pertama-tama, konsep yang harus di-clear-kan untuk memahami fenomena ini adalah perbedaan keadaan udara antara di dataran rendah dan di dataran tinggi.
Gambar 1
Perhatikan Gambar 1. Udara melingkupi permukaan bumi kita hingga ketinggian sekitar 560 km. Kumpulan udara yang melingkupi bumi ini disebut juga atmosfer. Salah satu sifat udara adalah lentur, bagaikan karet yang bisa dimampatkan. Karena pengaruh gaya gravitasi bumi, setiap lapisan udara akan menindih lapisan udara di bawahnya. Akibatnya, udara yang posisinya lebih rendah akan lebih mampat daripada udara yang posisinya lebih tinggi. Jika udara memampat, itu artinya kerapatannya membesar. Istilah lain yang juga sering digunakan adalah tekanan. Jika udara memampat, tekanannya akan membesar.

Jadi, udara di dataran rendah lebih mampat daripada udara di dataran tinggi. Lantas, apa yang terjadi jika udara semakin mampat? Jika udara semakin mampat, itu artinya jumlah partikel udara semakin banyak per satuan volumenya. Dengan demikian, jumlah partikel udara di dataran rendah lebih banyak daripada jumlah partikel udara di dataran tinggi.

Ketika matahari menyinari bumi, itu artinya matahari memberi energi pada segala sesuatu yang ia sinari, termasuk partikel udara. Masing-masing partikel udara tersebut menerima energi sinar matahari yang (relatif) sama. Dengan demikian, semakin banyak partikel udaranya, semakin banyak pula energi sinar matahari yang terserap. Energi-energi yang terserap tersebut kemudian akan “bermetamorfosis” menjadi panas.

Sampai di sini, semuanya semakin jelas. Karena jumlah partikel udara di dataran tinggi lebih sedikit daripada jumlah partikel udara di dataran rendah, maka jumlah energi matahari yang terserap di dataran tinggi akan lebih sedikit, sehingga panas yang terbentuk tidak sebanyak panas di dataran rendah. Itulah sebabnya udara di dataran tinggi lebih dingin.

Bahan Renungan untuk Anda:
Jika dinginnya cuaca di dataran tinggi disebabkan oleh dinginnya udara, lantas mengapa air, tanah, dan benda-beda lainnya di dataran tinggi juga dingin?

*******
(Ditulis oleh Doni Aris Yudono)
http://www.facebook.com/Yudha.On.7 

Sumber gambar:

9 komentar:

  1. mau tanya: turunnya suhu udara seiring dengan ketinggian ternyata hanya berlaku dilapisan troposfer dan mesosfer, lapisan diatas troposfer, yaitu stratosfer berlaku hukum sebaliknya, semakin naik, semakin tinggi suhunya.
    mohon penjelasannya

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hal itu disebabkan oleh adanya kandungan ozon di lapisan stratosfer. Ozon bersifat menyerap sinar ultraviolet (UV) dari matahari sehingga bersifat panas.

      Delete
    2. Assalammu'alaikum, mau bertanya ni, di dataran tinggi suhu pasti akan tinggi, namun kenapa kelembabannya rendah bukankah seharusnya tinggi

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